Learning

Learning
   1) Identical Elements
   One mental function or activity improves others in so far as and because they are in part identical with it, because it contains elements common to them. Addition improves multiplication because multiplication is largely addition; knowledge of Latin gives increased ability to learn French because many of the facts learned in the one case are needed in the other. (Thorndike, 1906, p. 243)
   2) The Law of Effect and the Law of Exercise
   The Law of Effect is that: Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to recur. The greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond.
   The Law of Exercise is that: Any response to a situation will, other things being equal, be more strongly connected with the situation in proportion to the number of times it has been connected with that situation and to the average vigor and duration of the connections. (E. L. Thorndike, 1970, p. 244)
   3) Associationism Is Not the Only Kind of Learning
   The main objection to the prevailing [associationist] theory, which makes one kind of connection the basis of all learning, is not that it may be incorrect but that in the course of psychological research it has prevented an unbiased study of other kinds of learning. (Katona, 1940, pp. 4-5)
   4) The Classical Boundaries between the Various Kinds of Learning Will Disappear
   I believe that learning by examples, learning by being told, learning by imitation, learning by reinforcement and other forms are much like one another. In the literature on learning there is frequently an unstated assumption that these various forms are fundamentally different. But I think the classical boundaries between the various kinds of learning will disappear once superficially different kinds of learning are understood in terms of processes that construct and manipulate descriptions. (Winston, 1975, p. 185)

Historical dictionary of quotations in cognitive science. . 2015.

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  • Learning — Learn ing, n. [AS. leornung.] 1. The acquisition of knowledge or skill; as, the learning of languages; the learning of telegraphy. [1913 Webster] 2. The knowledge or skill received by instruction or study; acquired knowledge or ideas in any… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • learning — (n.) O.E. leornung learning, study, from leornian (see LEARN (Cf. learn)). Learning curve attested by 1907 …   Etymology dictionary

  • learning — I noun acquired knowledge, acquirements, acquisition of knowledge, analysis, attainment, body of knowledge, common knowledge, comprehension, discipline, edification, education, enlightenment, erudition, experience, extensive knowledge,… …   Law dictionary

  • learning — erudition, scholarship, *knowledge, science, information, lore Analogous words: *culture, cultivation, breeding, refinement: enlightenment (see corresponding verb at ILLUMINATE) …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • learning — [n] education, knowledge acquirements, attainments, culture, erudition, information, letters, literature, lore, research, scholarship, schooling, science, study, training, tuition, wisdom; concepts 274,409 Ant. ignorance …   New thesaurus

  • learning — ► NOUN ▪ knowledge or skills acquired through study or by being taught …   English terms dictionary

  • learning — [lʉr′niŋ] n. [ME lerning < OE leornung < leornian, to LEARN] 1. the acquiring of knowledge or skill 2. acquired knowledge or skill; esp., much knowledge in a special field SYN. INFORMATION …   English World dictionary

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  • learning — noun 1 process of learning sth ADJECTIVE ▪ effective, successful ▪ a model for effective learning ▪ independent ▪ distance (= by correspondence course) ▪ …   Collocations dictionary

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